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List of Chinese Pinyin and Pronunciation Techniques

July 9th, 2009 - by Huang Jason


We use Chinese Pinyin to learn Chinese as we use phonetic symbol in learning English. Each Chinese pinyin is composed of an initial and a final, which is the smallest possible elements of the phonetics. For example,   

ma = m +  a     (Pinyin= Initials + Finals)

 

Table 1. Initials (Click to sound)

b

p

m

f

d

t

n

l

g

k

h

 

j

q

x

 

zh

ch

sh

r

z

c

s

 

 

Table 2. Finals (Click to sound)

 

i

u

ü

a

ia / ya

ua / wa

 

o

 

uo / wo

 

e

ie

 

üe / ue

ai

 

uai / wai

 

ei

 

ui / uei / wei

 

ao

iao / yao

 

 

ou

iu / iou / you

 

 

an

ian / yan

uan / wan

üan / uan

en

in

un / uen

ün

ang

iang / yang

uang / wang

 

eng

ing

ueng / weng

 

ong

iong / yong

 

 

er / r

 

 

 

 

Table 4. Special Rules

1. Standalone “zh, ch, sh, r, z, c, s” are written as “zhi, chi, shi, ri, zi, ci, si”
2. “iou, uei, uen” are written as “iu, ui, un”
3. Syllables starting with “i" are written as “y” in place of “i" (e.g. “iou” is written as you). Standalone “i" is written as “yi”.
4. Syllables starting with “u” are written as “w” in place of “u” (e.g. ueng is written as weng). Standalone “u” is written as “wu”.
5. Syllables starting with “ü” are written as “yu” in place of “ü” (e.g. üe is written as yue).
6. "ü" is written as "u" after j, q, x,.
7. Syllables “r” at the end of a word equals “er”

Table 5. Pronunciation techniques of initials (Click to sound)

Location

Sound

Upper Lip

Upper Teeth

The back of upper teeth

Upper Gum

Maxilla

Maxilla

Maxilla

Bottom Lip

Bottom Lip

The tip of tongue

The tip of tongue

The tip of tongue

Tongue

Tongue Root

Occlusive

Unaspirated

b

 

 

d

 

 

g

Aspirated

p

 

 

t

 

 

k

Occlusive

and

Fricative

Unaspirated

 

 

z

 

zh

j

 

Aspirated

 

 

c

 

ch

q

 

Fricative

 

f

s

 

sh

r

x

h

Nasal

m

 

n

 

 

 

ng

Lateral

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6. Pronunciation techniques of finals (Click to sound)

Finals

Techniques

a

The mouth opens; the tongue declines; and the throat make voice and breathe out.

o

The mouth semi-opens; the tongue raises a little; the lips are round; and the throat makes voice and breathes out.

e

As above; not a round lips.

i

The mouth semi-opens; the tongue is raised; the lips are flat; and breathes out; the voice comes out from upper gum.

u

The mouth is slightly closed; the tongue raises a little; the lips are round; and breathe out; the voice comes out from mouth.

ü

The mouth is slightly closed; the tongue is raised; the lips are round; and breathe out; the voice comes out from mouth.

ai

As a + i

ei

As e + i

ao

As a + o

ou

As o + u

er / r

As e + r

an

Make “a” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the gum and make nasal sound.

en

Make “e” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the gum and make nasal sound.

in

Make “i” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the gum and make nasal sound.

ün

Make “ü” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the gum and make nasal sound.

ang

Make “a” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the maxilla and make nasal sound.

eng

Make “e” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the maxilla and make nasal sound.

ing

Make “i” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the maxilla and make nasal sound.

ong

Make “o” voice, then raise the tip of tongue to the maxilla and make nasal sound.

iu / iou / you

As i + ou

ie

As i + e

ia / ya

As i + a

iao / yao

As i + ao

ian / yan

As i + an

iang / yang

As i + ang

iong / yong

As i + ong

ue / üe

As ü + e

üan / uan

As ü + an

ui / uei / wei

As u + ei

ua / wa

As u + a

uai / wai

As u + ai

uo / wo

As u + o

un / uen

As u + en

uan / wan

As u + an

uang / wang

As u + ang

ueng / weng

As u + eng

.

4 Responses to “List of Chinese Pinyin and Pronunciation Techniques”

  1. sophia says:

    happy for sound but mine was stuck.

  2. Muhammad Tanveer says:

    This trick is really brilliant to pronounce the Chinese words…

    I like it very helpful

    Thanks

  3. sandy says:

    This is soo very very helpful.
    Thank you.

  4. Gausalyah says:

    its really good for those who want to learn mandarin….

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